Friday, May 9, 2014

Muhammad (SWAS) (Translation)

Translated from Arabic to English by Abu Abdullah

His Genealogy
Muhammad son of Abdullah son of Abdul Mutalib, from Bani Ismaeel son of Ibraheem (AS) and his maternal relatives were from Bani Zahra, such that his mother Aaminah daughter of Wahab was from them and his (PBUH) genealogy meets them with respect to her being from Kilaab son of Murrah son of Fahr. That is the prophet of Allah and the last of His Messengers and Prophets to the worlds.

His Birth
Muhammad (PBUH) was born in Makkah as an orphan with respect to his father, in Rabii Al Awwal in the year of the elephant and his father, Abdullah, died while his mother was 2 months pregnant with him. When he was born, his grandfather Abdul Mutalib became responsible for him. His mother died when he reached six years of age and his grandfather, Abdul Mutalib, died when he reached eight years of age, hence his uncle Abu Talib became responsible for him and he remained protecting him until his death. He was suckled by Halima As Sadiya.

His Travel to Syria and His Marriage to Khadijah
When he reached the age of twelve years, he (PBUH) traveled with his uncle, Abu Talib, for trading to Syria. During this trip he met monk Bahira in Bosrah city and the monk recognized him by his attributes which were known in the books of the People of the Book. What he said about him: “This is the Messenger of the Lord of the Worlds, Allah sent him as a blessing to the worlds”. It was said to him: and how do you know this? He said: Before I met you, I noticed from above, that every tree and stone prostrated itself, and they do not prostrate except to a prophet and I knew him by the seal of the prophet hood below the cartilage of his shoulders. And he warned his uncle not to go with him to the Roman lands as he is afraid for him from them, so his uncle returned him to Makkah. Then he went out for a second time to Syria for trade representing Khadijah daughter of Khuwaylid with her slave, Maysarah. Maysarah saw his glitter form his dealings, so he informed his lady what he saw, so she became inclined to marry him. He married her when he was 25 years old and she was 40 years old. She had been married 2 men before she married him. To one she gave birth to a son and a daughter and to the second, two daughters.

His Mission
Gabriel came with the first chapter from the Quran (Chapter: The Blood Clot) in the month of Ramadan in his 40th year of life, while he was worshiping in the cave of Hiraa. He aborted his seclusion, and returned fearfully to his wife, Khadijah. She reassured him and gave him glad tidings and took him to her Christian relative, Waraqah Ibn Nawfal who gave them good news that Muhammad will become a prophet of this nation. He wished that he was strong youth so that he could help him during his prominence. The revelation discontinued for a while then Allah revealed to him Chapter Mudathir. In it, Allah (SWT) commanded him to invite his people to Islam, and then the revelations continued until his death. The first to respond positively to his call from men was his companion Abu Bakr and from women his wife, Khadijah and from youth his paternal uncle’s son, Ali and from slaves, his slave, Zayd Ibn Haritha. A group accepted Islam through Abu Bakr. Among them were Uthman Ibn Affan, Talha Ibn Obaidullah, Saad Ibn Abi Waqqas, Abdulrahman Ibn Awf, Uthman Ibn Mazaun, Abu Salama Ibn Abdalasad and Arqam Ibn Abi Arqam. The Prophet (PBUH) used to meet secretly his companions in the home of Al Arqam Ibn Abi Arqam and they used to invite (to Islam) secretly. This continued for three years. Then his call (to Islam) became open due to the command of Allah (SWT): “So call openly with what you have been commanded and confront the idolaters”[Chapter: Al Hijr; Verse: 94]

Torture by Quraish and Hijrah to Habasha
He (PBUH) continued to openly invite (to Islam) in Makkah for ten years and Quraish oppressed him and his companions severely and accused him with many accusations. They said that he was a magician, soothsayer and madman. They threw obstructions and thorns in his path and hurt him while he prayed. They oppressed whoever accepted Islam with him from the slaves like Bilal Ibn Rabbah, Khabbab Ibn Al Arti, Ammar Ibn Yassir and his son Yassir, and his mother Sumayya. Some of them (RA) died from the torture.

When the oppression became severe, the Messenger (PBUH) allowed them to migrate to Habasha, to the just king, Najashi. So about hundred migrated and Najashi honored them. The Messenger (PBUH) went to Taif, to practically spread the call (to Islam) to find others who might help him, but they belied and tortured him.

The Night Journey and the Ascension
This miracle happened to honor and support Muhammad (PBUH) after the death of his uncle who had been protecting him and the passing away of his wife who used to console him and after he experienced oppression from the idolaters in Taif and Makkah. The miracle here consisted of the Prophet’s (PBUH) going to the Holy Abode in body and spirit (the night journey) then his ascending to the heavens (the ascension). All this happened in a fraction of a night.

The Two Pledges of Aqabah and The Spreading of The Call (to Islam)
It was the Hajj season and the Arab markets were very relevant. The Messenger (PBUH) met people there, ************** with the affairs with them, and he asked them to shelter him to preach the message of his Lord. There were some who responded to him, in the eleventh year of his mission. Six people from the Khawarij (from the tribe in Madinah). In the following year twelve men from Madinah, known as Helpers, pledged allegiance to him in Aqabah. This pledge of theirs was known as the first Pledge of Aqabah. Seventy three men and two women pledged to support and help him, in the thirteenth year also in Aqabah. This is known as the second Pledge of Aqabah. These pledges represented the basis of the migration of the Prophet (PBUH) with his companions to Madinah, to establish the Islamic state. The Prophet (PBUH) stayed in Makkah thirteen years.

The Migration to Madinah
The Prophet (PBUH) commanded his Companions to migrate to Madinah. Thus they continued to do so secretly, singly and in groups and some stayed behind due to excuses. The Prophet (PBUH) took great precautions in his escape from the disbelievers who had decided to kill him. Hence he proceeded with Abu Bakr to the South in order to spend three days in Cave Thwr until his search and the desire to find him dissipated. Asma bint Abu Bakr used to carry food to them. Abdullah Bin Abu Bakr used to listen what was said in Makkah, then he used to go to them to inform them. With him was Aamir Bin Fuhair (slave of Abu Bakr), who used to bring goats to erase their footsteps and to provide them milk to drink. The disbelievers followed their footprints to the entrance of the cave but Allah protected them. Quraish made a hundred camels as reward for anyone who catches them, but Allah protected His Prophet from all evil like He protected him on the way from Suraqah Ibn Malik, as the feet of his horse sank in the earth and he requested mercy.

The Prophet in Madinah
The Prophet (PBUH) arrived at Quba and spent three days there. He built Masjid Quba there which is the first masjid built on piety. Then he proceeded to Madinah, where he was received by the Helpers, who were happy at his arrival and his welcomers happily sung:

The full moon has arisen                     From Thaniyat Al Wadah

Thanks is enjoined on us                     On what Allah has given us

The Prophet (PBUH) disembarked on the house of Abu Ayyub The Helper (RA). The people of Madinah were called the Helpers and the people who migrated from Makkah were called the Migrants. The most important thing that was done in Madinah was the building of the masjid, sharing in the building, the peace between the two tribes, Aws and Khazraj, the brotherhood between the Migrants and the Helpers to reinforce one another with each other’s support, and writing up of the agreement between them and the Jews.

His Military Campaigns
Allah allowed the Messenger to fight battles and made this a means to protect the Muslim lands, and a means to propagate Allah’s religion. There occurred a number of skirmishes and battles between the Muslims and the disbelievers. Among the most famous were:

The Great Battle of Badr
It took place in the second year of the Hijrah. In it the Muslims won and the idolaters lost. Seventy of them died and seventy were taken prisoners.

The Battle of Uhud
It took place in the third year of the Hijrah close to Madinah at Mount Uhud. In it, the Muslim won at first, but the archers disobeyed the Messenger’s (PBUH) command and descended from the mountain. Thus the idolaters returned, led by Khalid Ibn Walid, from the direction of the mountain, and so the balance of the war led to a stalemate.

The Battle of the Tribes
In the fifth year of the Hijrah, Quraish plotted with some tribes to lay siege to Madinah. The Muslims dug trenches to protect them from the tribes who made alliance with the Jews of Madinah (Banu Quraizah) who broke their treaty with the Muslims. Allah sent strong winds so the idolaters dispersed and Allah protected the Muslims from slaughter.

The Battle of Banu Quraizah
Immediately after the Battle of the Tribes, the Muslims diverted attention to the Jews of Banu Quraizah who broke their treaty with the Muslims and laid siege on them. Saad Ibn Muaaz decided regarding their case and ended their mischief.

The Treaty of Hudaibiya
The Messenger (PBUH) and the Muslims left (Madinah) in the sixth year to Makkah for Umrah. They did not seek to fight, but sought only to perform Umrah. The idolaters met them and stopped them from the House (of Allah). The two parties consolidated a treaty, known as the Treaty of Hudaibiya. The terms of the treaty were to stop fighting between them for ten years, and that the Muslims should return that year without performing Umrah, and that they should perform Umrah the next year.

Conquest of Makkah
In the eight year of Hijrah, the Messenger (PBUH) left (Madinah) to conquer Makkah after the idolaters broke the treaty. He conquered Makkah, broke the idols and removed the signs of idolatry from it. After the victory, Islam started to spread in the Arabian Peninsula and the Arab delegations started to arrive in Madinah to announce their entry into Islam.

His Death
The Messenger (PBUH) passed away at sixty three years of age during the day, on Monday, on the twelfth day of Rabii Al Awwal. He was buried in the same place where he died, in Ayesha’s room. The Muslims send greetings on him.